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Sunday, January 28, 2024

Who took out mortgage cost holidays through the pandemic? – Financial institution Underground

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Georgina Inexperienced

The take-up of mortgage cost holidays within the UK through the Covid-19 pandemic was extraordinary: in response to UK Finance, holidays granted reached a peak of 1.9 million through the pandemic, or roughly one in six mortgages. However which households benefited from the scheme? On this submit I take advantage of wealthy UK family survey information to conduct an in-depth evaluation of the distribution of the debt-relief scheme at a person stage. I discover that debtors struggling to maintain up with funds throughout Covid utilized for a vacation, suggesting the scheme performed an vital position in stopping a pointy rise in defaults. There’s additionally proof that some households might have taken them as insurance coverage in opposition to future shocks, probably dampening precautionary spending cuts.

What are cost holidays?

The unfold of Covid and the actions to include it had a major impression on UK family incomes and had the potential to trigger a major rise in family debt misery. Nevertheless, from March 2020 cost deferral schemes, often known as ‘cost holidays’, have been shortly rolled-out throughout the UK. They offered a type of forbearance to debtors struggling due to Covid, by permitting a brief freeze on mortgage repayments.

The schemes have been supplied by lenders for as much as six months following steerage from the UK conduct regulator, the Monetary Conduct Authority. Mortgagors have been eligible so long as they weren’t already behind on funds and debtors have been informed that holidays wouldn’t be reported as missed funds on their credit score file, impacting their credit score scores. 

As most mortgagors have been eligible for a vacation, understanding which households utilized for the schemes is of key significance for coverage. Of specific curiosity, is whether or not deferrals went to households whose funds had come below pressure on account of the pandemic, similar to: these whose well being was affected and have been quickly unable to work due to this; these shielding due to underlying well being vulnerabilities; and people who misplaced revenue on account of lockdowns, similar to those that have been furloughed or unemployed. The results of cost deferrals going to households in want are extremely materials. By making certain households stayed present on their mortgages, the schemes might have prevented a pointy rise in defaults and spending cuts, which may have had destructive spillovers to the remainder of the economic system. Certainly, all through the pandemic mortgage arrears remained close to to traditionally low ranges. And although family spending fell considerably, largely pushed by curbs on social exercise, it might have declined even additional had cost deferrals not been launched to assist households.

Use of family survey information to look at who accessed mortgage cost holidays within the UK

I take advantage of granular information overlaying round 3,000 UK mortgagors collected from the Understanding Society Covid-19 Examine. Understanding Society is the UK’s predominant longitudinal family survey. The Covid research was launched to seize experiences of a subset of those households through the pandemic.

The primary time a family was interviewed they have been requested if they’d utilized for a mortgage cost vacation. I pool collectively all of the responses to this query throughout three waves (in April, Could and July 2020) to create my pattern. In my pattern, 12% of mortgagors responded that they’d utilized for a cost vacation. Of those purposes, round 1% have been nonetheless below evaluate with solely 0.1% having been declined. That only a few purposes have been declined confirms that cost holidays have been largely pushed by borrower demand quite than lender provide. The purposes below evaluate on the time of the survey have been probably delayed by capability constraints amongst lenders. I due to this fact concentrate on all purposes quite than solely these granted to maximise my pattern dimension.

To discover predictors of responses to the cost deferral query I hyperlink info from the Covid surveys (age; ethnicity; revenue; well being; employment; and monetary considerations) to vital pre-crisis family traits from the primary survey, similar to mortgage debt, internet financial savings and former housing cost difficulties.

I discover that variables which point out that a person’s funds had come below pressure through the pandemic are correlated with selections to use. When nothing else is managed for, households which had skilled a fall in earnings have been extra more likely to apply for a vacation than others, notably if the autumn exceeded 25% (Chart 1). Whereas it’s stunning {that a} comparatively massive share of households which skilled rises in earnings of over 25% nonetheless utilized for deferrals, these households tended to be a lot worse-off previous to the pandemic. On common, pre-Covid family earnings for this group have been 45% decrease than different households that utilized for deferrals. Consequently, even regardless of the rise in revenue, they could have been struggling financially. People who anticipated to be worse off within the following month have been additionally significantly extra more likely to apply for a deferral, suggesting precautionary causes might have been vital (Chart 2).

Chart 1: Cost deferral by change in family internet earnings between January/February 2020 and the interview date (per cent)

Sources: Understanding Society Covid-19 Examine and Financial institution calculations.

Chart 2: Cost deferral by monetary expectations one month forward (per cent)

Sources: Understanding Society Covid-19 Examine and Financial institution calculations.

Did cost deferrals go to folks whose funds had come below pressure on account of the pandemic?

To formally examine which traits are related to purposes for cost holidays I run logit regressions, which mannequin the chance of an occasion occurring. My baseline outcomes are proven in Chart 3. I report the marginal results, which inform us the impression of a variable on the chance of making use of for a cost vacation, holding all different variables at their common stage.

I discover proof that many deferrals went to these whose funds had come below pressure. Being furloughed, dropping family earnings or being made redundant because the begin of the pandemic are all economically and statistically vital predictors of deferral purposes. People who’re self-employed are additionally considerably extra more likely to have utilized for a deferral than the common. That is in keeping with proof that the self-employed have been notably onerous hit by the pandemic and restrictions to include it. Essentially the most economically vital predictor is a person’s subjective present monetary scenario: those that have been discovering their current monetary scenario troublesome, have been round 17% extra more likely to apply for a deferral.

No well being variables – similar to having had signs of Covid previously or having examined constructive for Covid – are vital. It’s probably that the strain on family funds from being sick with Covid and having to self-isolate is already being soaked up by the revenue and job standing variables.

Chart 3: Outcomes logit regression

Notes: Error bars signify 90% confidence intervals round imply marginal results. ‘Earnings fall’ refers back to the change in family internet earnings between January/February 2020 and the person’s first-response to the Covid survey. ‘Web financial savings’ is calculated as family financial savings internet of whole client credit score. ‘Excessive DSR’ is a binary variable indicating whether or not a family’s mortgage debt servicing ratio was within the high quintile. ‘Excessive LTV’ signifies whether or not a family’s mortgage mortgage to worth ratio was within the high quintile. Further variables managed for in regression however not proven embody: capacity to make money working from home; results of Covid check; had signs of Covid; mortgage mortgage to revenue ratio; family internet revenue; NHS informed to ‘defend’; age; youngsters; gender; marital standing; and ethnicity.

Who else took cost holidays?

My outcomes additionally counsel the coverage inspired financially weak households, who had not suffered any kind of Covid-related shock to their funds, to use.

Mortgagors with a excessive debt-servicing ratio, excessive mortgage to worth ratio, destructive family internet financial savings or those that had beforehand been in arrears, have been extra more likely to apply even when modifications in revenue and job standing are managed for. These people probably confronted borrowing and liquidity constraints and will have used the schemes to construct up a buffer of financial savings to insure in opposition to future shocks. Expectations additionally appear to matter. People who anticipated to be financially worse off in a single months’ time additionally had a statistically considerably greater predicted chance of making use of.

These outcomes are strong to numerous assessments, together with controlling for the month of interview, area, the removing of weights and modifications within the pattern.


Total, my outcomes counsel that many deferrals flowed to these whose funds had come below pressure on account of the pandemic. Certainly, a family’s subjective monetary scenario being troublesome is the strongest predictor of making use of for cost deferrals. It’s due to this fact doable that deferrals helped forestall an increase in defaults and dampened family spending cuts. However expectations and pre-Covid balance-sheet variables mattered too, even when employment and revenue are managed for. This means that some purposes may have been made for precautionary causes. Due to this fact the schemes might have dampened spillovers to the actual economic system even additional by stopping financially weak and pessimistic mortgagors from slicing again on their spending.

Georgina Inexperienced works within the Financial institution’s Macro-financial Dangers Division.

If you wish to get in contact, please electronic mail us at bankunderground@bankofengland.co.uk or depart a remark under.

Feedback will solely seem as soon as accredited by a moderator, and are solely printed the place a full identify is equipped. Financial institution Underground is a weblog for Financial institution of England employees to share views that problem – or assist – prevailing coverage orthodoxies. The views expressed listed here are these of the authors, and should not essentially these of the Financial institution of England, or its coverage committees.


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